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Working with parents to provide practical strategies for home-supported learning Bekerja sama dengan orang tua dalam mempersiapkan strategi praktis untuk belajar di rumah

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Working with parents to provide practical strategies for home-supported learning

These are challenging times for students, educators and parents alike, with a rapidly changing education landscape to navigate in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Many schools and early learning providers are preparing to support children and young people in alternative ways, including through online environments to ensure the continuity of their education.

Not every family has the same resources and access to technology to support learning at home. For those experiencing vulnerability, we must ensure the digital divide and lack of other resources does not turn the current achievement gap into a chasm over the coming months.

In this home-supported learning environment parents are being called upon to play a broader role in their children’s education. The role of the parent is not to replace the teacher in learning from home, rather it may be thought of as working as an Integration Aide or Teaching Assistant to support the learning coming from the school. Evidence about the best ways for parents to support and guide their children’s learning at home can provide guidance to help improve home-supported learning.

Evidence-informed parental engagement

At Evidence for Learning, we have recently published two Guidance Reports that provide evidence on how to best support children in their learning (Evidence for Learning, 2019a, 2019b).

We also have dedicated pages on the benefit of effective parental engagement in our both our Teaching & Learning Toolkit (Education Endowment Foundation, 2020b) and Early Childhood Education Toolkit (Education Endowment Foundation, 2020a).

There are three recommendations from this evidence base that can be helpful to inform the role that parents can play in supporting learning at home:

  1. Parents to supplement what teachers do, not to replace them.
  2. Parents to help children develop independent learning skills and manage their own learning.
  3. Educators can provide practical strategies for parents to support learning at home (Evidence for Learning, 2019a, 2019b).

The level of support and ways of engaging with children varies substantially based on their age. The first two recommendations draw from the evidence on the effective use of Teaching Assistants and are useful to frame the revitalised role that parents can play in their child’s learning.

Parents to supplement what teachers do, not to replace them

In parents supplementing what teachers do, the focus is on helping their children in their readiness for learning, ensuring they are prepared and focused for the lesson (Evidence for Learning, 2019a, p.14). Importantly, parents aren’t expected to deliver material or content. In a home-supported learning environment readiness to learn includes:

  • Supporting children to create regular routines and study habits;
  • Ensuring a quiet space free from distractions e.g. asking the child to set aside materials that they don’t need for learning (e.g. phones and other digital devices not required for learning);
  • Home computer/laptop with adequate internet and video to interact with educators and rest of the class or group were applicable; and,
  • Stationary items required for that lesson, including pen, paper and calculator.

If a child is struggling with certain content, the parent can help younger children to seek help from their educator. For older children, parents can encourage metacognition and self-regulation through the child seeking help from the teacher (Evidence for Learning, 2019a). We have explored some of the key aspects of metacognition and self-regulation in a recently published Guidance Report (Quigley et al., 2019) and accompanying article in Teacher magazine (Vaughan & Schoeffel, 2019a).

Parents helping children develop independent learning skills

Improving the nature and quality of parents’ talk to their children can support the development of independent learning skills that are associated with improved learning outcomes (Evidence for Learning, 2019a). Schools can encourage parents to help their children to develop independent learning skills and manage their own learning through:

  • Providing the right amount of support at the right time;
  • Encouraging children to take risks with their learning;
  • Using open-ended questions;
  • Ensuring children retain responsibility for their learning; and,
  • Giving the least amount of help first to encourage children’s ownership of the task (Evidence for Learning, 2019a, p.15; Vaughan, 2018).

Educators providing practical strategies for parents

The practical strategies that schools can provide parents with in relation to home-supported learning vary greatly depending on the age of the child (Education Endowment Foundation, 2020b; Evidence for Learning, 2019b).

Parents of preschool children can encourage their child’s oral language development through conversation and read to their children (Bus et al., 1995; Education Endowment Foundation, 2020a; Houen et al., 2020). For primary-aged children, parents can support reading activities (Sénéchal & Young, 2008) and general academic activity (Nye et al., 2006). Parents can be helpful in the home-supported learning environment with older students by setting routines and encouraging good habits (Evidence for Learning, 2019b).

Parents can encourage preschool children’s oral language development by creating spaces for their talk and keeping conversations going; using intentional pausing creates time for children to think and construct a response (Evidence for Learning in collaboration with the University of Queensland, 2019a). Parents can create space for children’s talk by using ‘I wonder’ questions such as ‘I wonder what happens outside when it’s autumn?’ (Houen et al., 2019). These types of questions invite children’s thoughts and ideas about a topic. Several strategies can be used to keep a conversation going, such as:

  • Having conversations about children’s personal experiences, lives and interests which might involve using photographs as a prompt;
  • Using active listening techniques such as making eye-contact, using short verbal clues, facial expressions and gestures; and,
  • Paraphrasing a child’s talk to model more complex language (e.g. If a child says, ‘Look there’s a bird’, you might respond, ‘Oh yes, I can see the lorikeet in the tree. It reminds me of a colourful rainbow). (Evidence for Learning in collaboration with the University of Queensland, 2019b).

For young children, promoting shared reading can support oral language development and early literacy. Shared reading is explored in greater detail within a previous Teacher magazine article (Vaughan & Schoeffel, 2019b). The key here is to encourage reading that is interactive, ‘promoting longer and more frequent conversations with their children,’ (Evidence for Learning, 2019b).

Parents with primary-aged children can use the ORIM framework when working with books and other print materials. The ORIM framework is outlined below (Evidence for Learning, 2019b, p.11):

  • Opportunities – for example, books or other print materials;
  • Recognition – praise and attention when children take part;
  • Interactions – sharing and working on activities together; and,
  • Modelling – demonstrating a skill.

For children of all ages, although more pertinent for older students in home-supported learning, parents ‘can promote the self-regulation in children necessary to achieve academic goals including goal setting, planning perseverance, and the management of time, materials, attentiveness, and emotions,’ (Evidence for Learning, 2019b, p.13).

Key takeaways

Parents can act to support their children by shared reading, oral language activities and promoting self-regulation. However, the work of educators is not replaced by parents in home-supported learning. Educators can encourage parents to support children by helping them to be ready for learning and encouraging them to seek help from teachers when stuck. Fostering independent learning is crucial. We can encourage this by giving the least amount of help first to support children’s ownership of the task.

References

Bus, A. G., Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Pellegrini, A. D. (1995). Joint book reading makes for success in learning to read: A meta-analysis on intergenerational transmission of literacy. Review of educational research, 65(1), 1-21.

Education Endowment Foundation. (2020a). Evidence for Learning Early Childhood Education Toolkit: Education Endowment Foundation. https://www.evidenceforlearning.org.au/the-toolkits/the-teaching-and-learning-toolkit

Education Endowment Foundation. (2020b). Evidence for Learning Teaching & Learning Toolkit: Education Endowment Foundation. Parental Engagement. https://www.evidenceforlearning.org.au/teaching-and-learning-toolkit/parental-engagement

Evidence for Learning. (2019a). Making best use of Teaching Assistants. https://www.evidenceforlearning.org.au/assets/Guidance-Reports/Teaching-Assistants/E4L-Guidance-Report-Teaching-Assistants-Sep-WEB.pdf (741KB)

Evidence for Learning. (2019b). Working with parents to support children's learning.  https://www.evidenceforlearning.org.au/assets/Guidance-Reports/Parental-engagement/Guidance-Report-Working-with-Parents-to-Support-Childrens-Learning-WEB.pdf (633KB)

Evidence for Learning in collaboration with the University of Queensland. (2019a). Creating spaces for children's talk. https://www.evidenceforlearning.org.au/assets/ECE/Creating-Space-For-Childrens-Talk-FINAL.pdf (257KB)

Evidence for Learning in collaboration with the University of Queensland. (2019b). Keeping the conversation going. https://evidenceforlearning.org.au/assets/ECE/Keeping-Conversation-Going-FINAL.pdf (264KB)

Houen, S., Danby, S., Farrell, A., & Thorpe, K. (2019). Adopting an unknowing stance in teacher–child interactions through ‘I wonder…’ formulations. Classroom Discourse, 10(2), 151-167.

Houen, S., Staton, S., Thorpe, K., & Toon, D. (2020, February 6) Building your evidence engine: Five evidence-informed strategies for promoting rich conversations with young children. Education Today. https://www.educationtoday.com.au/news-detail/Building-your-evidence-engine-4776#

Quigley, A., Muijs, D., Stringer, E., Deeble, M., Ho, P., & Schoeffel, S. (2019). Metacognition and self-regulated learning. https://www.evidenceforlearning.org.au/guidance-reports

Nye, C., Turner, H., & Schwartz, J. (2006). Approaches to parent involvement for improving the academic performance of elementary school age children. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2(1), 1-49.

Sénéchal, M., & Young, L. (2008). The effect of family literacy interventions on children’s acquisition of reading from kindergarten to grade 3: A meta-analytic review. Review of Educational Research, 78(4), 880-907.

Vaughan, T. (2018, November 8). The effective use of teaching assistants. Teacher magazine. https://www.teachermagazine.com.au/articles/the-effective-use-of-teaching-assistants

Vaughan, T., & Schoeffel, S. (2019a, December 13). Building students’ metacognition and self-regulation. Teacher magazine. https://www.teachermagazine.com.au/articles/building-students-metacognition-and-self-regulation

Vaughan, T., & Schoeffel, S. (2019b, October 14). Evidence-informed parental engagement. Teacher magazine. https://www.teachermagazine.com.au/articles/evidence-informed-parental-engagement

Situasi saat ini merupakan situasi yang berat bagi siswa, pendidik, serta orang tua, terlebih dengan sistem pendidikan yang dituntut sedemikian rupa agar lebih adaptif dalam menghadapi pandemi COVID-19.

Banyak sekolah dan penyedia pendidikan usia dini yang beralih menyediakan dukungan bagi siswanya melalui beragam metode alternatif, termasuk diantaranya pengajaran daring untuk memastikan proses belajar mengajar terus berjalan.

Tidak semua keluarga memiliki sumber daya dan akses yang sama terhadap teknologi untuk mendukung pembelajaran di rumah. Bagi mereka yang kesulitan, kita perlu memastikan bahwa kesenjangan digital dan kurangnya sumber daya tidak lantas menjadikan kesenjangan capaian siswa masuk ke jurang yang lebih dalam dalam periode beberapa bulan mendatang.

Dalam lingkungan belajar di rumah seperti ini, orang tua diminta untuk menjalankan peran yang lebih luas dalam proses pendidikan anaknya. Peran orang tua sejatinya bukan untuk menggantikan peran guru dalam praktik pengajaran dari rumah, justru bisa dianggap sebagai bagian dari Integration Aide atau Asisten Pengajar yang bertujuan untuk mendukung pengajaran yang diberikan dari sekolah. Temuan mengenai cara terbaik bagi orang tua untuk memberikan dukungan dan panduan dalam proses belajar anaknya di rumah dapat membantu meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran di rumah.

Pelibatan orang tua berbasis bukti

Di Evidence for Learning, kami baru saja mempublikasikan dua Laporan Panduan yang berisikan temuan-temuan mengenai cara terbaik memberikan dukungan bagi proses pembelajaran siswa (Evidence for Learning, 2019a, 2019b).

Kami juga mempersembahkan halaman khusus yang membahas manfaat pelibatan orang tua yang efektif baik dalam Toolkit Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran (Education Endowment Foundation, 2020b) dan Toolkit Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini (Education Endowment Foundation, 2020a).

Tiga rekomendasi yang disadur dari basis temuan ini cukup informatif dalam menjelaskan peran orang tua dalam penyelenggaraan proses belajar anak di rumah:

  1. Orang tua menambahkan apa yang sudah diajarkan guru, bukan menggantikan posisi guru.
  2. Orang tua membantu anaknya mengembangkan keterampilan belajar mandiri dan mengelola cara pembelajarannya sendiri.
  3. Pendidik dapat membantu menyediakan strategi praktis untuk orang tua terapkan sebagai bagian dukungan belajar di rumah (Evidence for Learning, 2019a, 2019b).

Tingkat dukungan ataupun cara yang dilakukan untuk ikut serta dalam proses yang anak sedang jalani sangat amat beragam tergantung dari usia mereka. Dua rekomendasi pertama yang dapat ditarik dari temuan mengenai penggunaan efektif Asisten Pengajar terbukti berguna dalam membingkai peran orang tua dalam proses belajar anaknya.

Orang tua menambahkan apa yang sudah diajarkan guru, bukan menggantikan posisi guru

Dalam konteks ini, fokus yang ditekankan adalah untuk membantu anak agar siap menerima pendidikan, memastikan mereka sedia dan fokus mengikuti kelas (Evidence for Learning, 2019a, hal.14). Yang utama adalah orang tua tidak diharapkan menyampaikan materi atau konten tertentu. Dalam lingkungan belajar di rumah, kesiapan belajar meliputi:

  • Mendukung anak menciptkan rutinititas dan kebiasaan belajar;
  • Memastikan terciptanya ruang tenang yang bebas dari gangguan, seperti meminta anak untuk menyimpan alat yang tidak dibutuhkan saat belajar (telepon genggam dan perangkat digital lainnya yang bukan untuk keperluan belajar);
  • Komputer di rumah/laptop yang dilengkapi dengan koneksi internet dan aplikasi video untuk berinteraksi dengan pendidik dan teman-teman di kelas/grup; dan,
  • Peralatan menulis yang dibutuhkan selama proses belajar berlangsung, termasuk pena, kertas, dan kalkulator.

Jika seorang anak mengalami kesulitan memahami bahasan tertentu, maka orang tua dapat membantu sang anak untuk meminta bantuan dari tenaga pendidik. Sementara jika anak berusia lebih dewasa, orang tua dapat mendorong tumbuhnya keterampilan metakognitif dan mengatur diri sendiri dengan cara memberikan anak semangat untuk meminta pertolongan dari gurunya (Evidence for Learning, 2019a). Kami pun menjabarkan aspek utama dari keterampilan metakognitif dan mengatur diri sendiri dalam publikasi Laporan Panduan terbaru kami (Quigley dkk., 2019) serta dalam artikel yang dimuat di majalah Teacher (Vaughan & Schoeffel, 2019a).

Orang tua membantu anak mengembangkan keterampilan belajar mandiri

Meningkatkan macam dan kualitas perbincangan orang tua dengan anak dapat membantu mengembangkan keterampilan belajar mandiri yang erat kaitannya dengan meningkatnya hasil pembelajaran (Evidence for Learning, 2019a). Sekolah dapat mendorong orang tua untuk membantu anaknya mengembangkan kemampuan tersebut dan mengelola pembelajaran mereka masing-masing:

  • Memberikan dukungan yang memadai pada saat yang tepat;
  • Mendorong anak untuk mengambil risiko dengan proses belajar yang dijalani;
  • Menerapkan tipe pertanyaan terbuka;
  • Memastikan anak memperoleh kembali tanggung jawab terhadap pembelajarannya sendiri; dan,
  • Memberikan dukungan seminimal mungkin agar anak terdorong merasa memiliki hak miliki akan tugasnya (Evidence for Learning, 2019a, hal.15; Vaughan, 2018).

Pendidik menyediakan strategi praktis bagi orang tua

Strategi praktis yang direkomendasikan sekolah untuk membantu orang tua dalam pelaksanaan pembelajaran di rumah beragam bentuknya tergantung usia anak (Education Endowment Foundation, 2020b; Evidence for Learning, 2019b).

Orang tua dari anak usia dini perlu mendorong perkembangan kemampuan bahasa lisan anak melalui percakapan dan bacaan untuk anaknya (Bus dkk., 1995; Education Endowment Foundation, 2020a; Houen dkk., 2020). Sementara untuk anak yang duduk di bangku sekolah dasar, orang tua diharapkan mendorong kebiasaan baca anak (Sénéchal & Young, 2008) dan aktivitas akademik lainnya (Nye dkk., 2006). Orang tua dengan anak usia lebih dewasa dapat membantu pelaksanaan proses belajar di rumah dengan merancang rutinitas dan mendorong kebiasaan baik (Evidence for Learning, 2019b).

Orang tua dapat membantu kemampuan bahasa lisan anak usia dini dengan menciptakan ruang untuk obrolan dan menjaga agar percakapan tersebut tetap berjalan baik; dengan menerapkan jeda yang dimaksudkan agar anak punya waktu untuk berpikir dan menyusun jawaban (Evidence for Learning in collaboration with the University of Queensland, 2019a). Orang tua dapat menciptakan ruang tersebut dimulai dengan penggunaan kalimat tanya seperti “Saya ingin tahu apa yang terjadi di luar sana saat musim gugur tiba?” (Houen dkk., 2019). Tipe kalimat pertanyaan seperti ini memancing anak untuk berpikir dan menggali gagasan mengenai sebuah topik. Beberapa strategi yang dapat dilakukan untuk menjaga percakapan terus berlanjut, antara lain:

  • Mengadakan percakapan yang membahas pengalaman pribadi anak, kehidupan sehari-hari serta minat anak dan terkadang membutuhkan foto/gambar sebagai pancingan;
  • Menggunakan teknik mendengarkan aktif misalnya kontak mata, penggunaan petunjuk lisan singkat, ekspresi wajah, dan bahasa tubuh; dan,
  • Mencoba menguraikan ulang kalimat yang diucapkan anak ke dalam bentuk yang lebih kompleks (contohnya, jika seorang anak berkata, “Lihat, ada burung!”, maka orang tua kemudian menjawab, “Oh iya, Saya bisa melihat ada seekor burung nuri di atas pohon. Warnanya mengingatkan saya dengan warna pelangi”). (Evidence for Learning in collaboration with the University of Queensland, 2019b).

Bagi anak usia dini, menggalakkan kegiatan baca bersama-sama dapat membantu perkembangan lisan dan literasi awal mereka. Kegiatan membaca bersama-sama sudah sempat dibahas lebih dalam di artikel Teacher edisi sebelumnya (Vaughan & Schoeffel, 2019b). Bagian utama dari kegiatan ini adalah untuk mendorong kebiasaan baca yang interaktif, ‘mendorong terwujudnya percakapan yang lebih lama dan lebih sering antara orang tua dan anak’ (Evidence for Learning, 2019b).

Orang tua dengan anak yang kini di bangku sekolah dasar dapat menerapkan kerangka ORIM ketika menggunakan buku dan material cetak lainnya. Kerangka ORIM dijelaskan seperti berikut (Evidence for Learning, 2019b, hal.11):

  • Opportunities (Kesempatan) – misalnya, buku atau material cetak lainnya;
  • Recognition (Pengakuan) – berikan pujian dan perhatian saat anak ikut serta;
  • Interactions (Interaksi) – berbagi dan bekerja dalam aktivitas bersama-sama; dan,
  • Modelling (Pemodelan) – mencontohkan keterampilan tertentu.

Untuk anak di segala usia, meski lebih tepat ditujukan bagi anak yang lebih dewasa yang menjalani pembelajaran di rumah, orang tua diharapkan ‘mendorong keterampilan pengaturan mandiri pada anak terlebih untuk mencapai target akademik, termasuk diantaranya penentuan target, ketekunan, serta manajemen waktu, material, perhatian, dan emosi’ (Evidence for Learning, 2019b, hal.13).

Kesimpulan utama

Orang tua berperan penting dalam mendukung anaknya melalui kegiatan baca bersama-sama, aktivitas bahasa lisan dan penggalakkan kemampuan pengaturan diri. Akan tetapi, tugas pendidik tidak akan digantikan oleh orang tua dalam sistem pembelajaran di rumah. Tenaga pendidik perlu mendorong orang tua untuk terus mendukung anaknya dengan memastikan mereka siap untuk menerima pelajaran dan mendorong mereka untuk tidak takut meminta bantuan dari guru ketika menemui hambatan. Memupuk kemampuan belajar mandiri sangatlah penting. Kita dapat memulainya dengan memberikan bantuan seminimal mungkin agar anak memiliki kepemilikan akan tugas yang mereka kerjakan.

Referensi

Bus, A. G., Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Pellegrini, A. D. (1995). Joint book reading makes for success in learning to read: A meta-analysis on intergenerational transmission of literacy. Review of educational research, 65(1), 1-21.

Education Endowment Foundation. (2020a). Evidence for Learning Early Childhood Education Toolkit: Education Endowment Foundation. https://www.evidenceforlearning.org.au/the-toolkits/the-teaching-and-learning-toolkit

Education Endowment Foundation. (2020b). Evidence for Learning Teaching & Learning Toolkit: Education Endowment Foundation. Parental Engagement. https://www.evidenceforlearning.org.au/teaching-and-learning-toolkit/parental-engagement

Evidence for Learning. (2019a). Making best use of Teaching Assistants. https://www.evidenceforlearning.org.au/assets/Guidance-Reports/Teaching-Assistants/E4L-Guidance-Report-Teaching-Assistants-Sep-WEB.pdf (741KB)

Evidence for Learning. (2019b). Working with parents to support children's learning.  https://www.evidenceforlearning.org.au/assets/Guidance-Reports/Parental-engagement/Guidance-Report-Working-with-Parents-to-Support-Childrens-Learning-WEB.pdf (633KB)

Evidence for Learning in collaboration with the University of Queensland. (2019a). Creating spaces for children's talk. https://www.evidenceforlearning.org.au/assets/ECE/Creating-Space-For-Childrens-Talk-FINAL.pdf (257KB)

Evidence for Learning in collaboration with the University of Queensland. (2019b). Keeping the conversation going. https://evidenceforlearning.org.au/assets/ECE/Keeping-Conversation-Going-FINAL.pdf (264KB)

Houen, S., Danby, S., Farrell, A., & Thorpe, K. (2019). Adopting an unknowing stance in teacher–child interactions through ‘I wonder…’ formulations. Classroom Discourse, 10(2), 151-167.

Houen, S., Staton, S., Thorpe, K., & Toon, D. (2020, February 6) Building your evidence engine: Five evidence-informed strategies for promoting rich conversations with young children. Education Today. https://www.educationtoday.com.au/news-detail/Building-your-evidence-engine-4776#

Quigley, A., Muijs, D., Stringer, E., Deeble, M., Ho, P., & Schoeffel, S. (2019). Metacognition and self-regulated learning. https://www.evidenceforlearning.org.au/guidance-reports

Nye, C., Turner, H., & Schwartz, J. (2006). Approaches to parent involvement for improving the academic performance of elementary school age children. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2(1), 1-49.

Sénéchal, M., & Young, L. (2008). The effect of family literacy interventions on children’s acquisition of reading from kindergarten to grade 3: A meta-analytic review. Review of Educational Research, 78(4), 880-907.

Vaughan, T. (2018, November 8). The effective use of teaching assistants. Teacher magazine. https://www.teachermagazine.com.au/articles/the-effective-use-of-teaching-assistants

Vaughan, T., & Schoeffel, S. (2019a, December 13). Building students’ metacognition and self-regulation. Teacher magazine. https://www.teachermagazine.com.au/articles/building-students-metacognition-and-self-regulation

Vaughan, T., & Schoeffel, S. (2019b, October 14). Evidence-informed parental engagement. Teacher magazine. https://www.teachermagazine.com.au/articles/evidence-informed-parental-engagement

How do you communicate with parents about the role they play in supporting their child’s learning? How are you using those channels to provide practical information about how they can support their child in the coming weeks? Will you need to introduce new ways of communicating with parents?

The authors highlight the fact that, ‘Not every family has the same resources and access to technology to support learning at home.’ What systems and support strategies will you put in place to ensure all students have the same opportunities to learn at home?

Bagaimana cara Anda berkomunikasi dengan orang tua siswa mengenai peran mereka dalam mendukung proses belajar anak? Bagaimana Anda memanfaatkan kanal komunikasi tersebut dalam menyediakan informasi praktis mengenai bagaimana mereka dapat mendukung anaknya dalam beberapa minggu mendatang? Perlukah Anda memperkenalkan cara baru berkomunikasi dengan orang tua?

Penulis menyoroti fakta yang menyebutkan bahwa “Tidak semua keluarga memiliki sumber daya dan akses yang sama terhadap teknologi untuk mendukung proses belajar anak di rumah.” Sistem dan dukungan strategi apa yang akan Anda tawarkan untuk memastikan semua siswa memiliki kesempatan belajar di rumah yang sama?


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